Building a Home Cloud with Proxmox Part 2: Domain Configuration


Last time I went over how to configure a router equipped with DD-WRT for managing a home cloud, as well as installing the awesome Proxmox virtualization environment. This time, we’ll go over how to configure a Windows domain controller to manage ActiveDirectory profiles, as well as DNS.

General configuration

The end goal is to provision a cluster that’s running a Windows domain controller (for DNS and ActiveDirectory), as well as a Kubernetes cluster. Once we have that we’ll deploy most of our services into the Kubernetes cluster, and we’ll be able to grant uniform access to every object via the domain controller.

Note that multitenancy isn’t a goal for this home cloud, although the domain controller is where we would add that. We could also partition our subnet into more subnets, providing functionality analogous to public cloud providers’ notions of Virtual Private Clouds.

Step 1: Create a Windows Server VM

  1. Ensure you have a suitable storage location:
    1. Open a shell to one of your nodes
    2. Type lsblk–it should show you a tree of your available hard drives and partitions
    3. If you don’t see a partition under your drives, type fdisk. In fdisk <drive>, where <drive> is the drive you want (probably not /dev/sda–that’s likely where Proxmox is installed), create a GPT partition by typing g. Write the changes by entering w
    4. Now you should be able to provision a VM on that drive/partition in the subsequent steps.
  2. Download the Windows Server ISO
  3. Upload the Windows Server ISO to Proxmox:
    1. The Windows server ISO is too large to upload via the GUI, so pick a node (e.g., and scp it up: scp <iso file> root@<node>:/var/lib/vz/template/iso, for example:scp windows_server_2019.iso
    2. Create a new VM
      • Select Windows as the type, the default version should be correct, but verify it’s something like 10/2019/
      • Give it at least 2 cores, 1 socket is fine. The disk should have at least 50GB available.
      • I provided mine with 16 GB RAM, but we have pretty big machines. 4 works fine, and you can change this later.
    3. One of the prompts will be to assign your server to a domain. You should enter the domain that you want to control (ours being

You should be able to access your Windows Server VM now, but it’s not quite ready.

Configure your Domain Controller’s DNS

The first thing we’ll want to do is ensure that our domain controller is at a deterministic location. For this, we’ll want to
1. Assign it a static DHCP lease in our router
1. Assign it a static IP locally
1. Assign it a DNS entry in our router

Assign the DHCP lease

  1. In the Windows VM, open an elevated console and run ipconfig /all. This will show all of your IP configurations, as well as the MAC addresses they’re associated with. Locate the entry for your subnet (ours is, and locate the associated MAC address (format AA:AA:AA:AA:AA:AA, where AA is a 2-letter alphanumeric string).
  2. Once you have your MAC address, log into your router, navigate to the Services/Services subtab, find the Static Leases section, and create an entry whose MAC address is the one you just obtained, and whose IP address is towards the low-end of your subnet (we selected Choose a memorable hostname (we went with and enter that, too.

Save and apply your changes.

Assign the static IP locally

  1. In your Windows VM, navigate to Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network Connections. You’ll probably only have one.
  2. Right-click on it and select Properties. Navigate to Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)
  3. Select Use the following IP address
    • For IP Address, enter the IP you set in the previous section (Assign the DHCP lease)
    • For Subnet mask, (assuming a /24 network), enter You can look these up here
    • For Default gateway, select your router IP (ours is

For the DNS Server Entries, you can set anything you like (that is a valid DNS server). We like Google’s DNS servers (, Notice that we’re not actually setting our router to be a DNS server, even though it is configured to be one. That’s because we generally want the domain controller to be our DNS server.

Click Ok and restart just to be sure.

Configure your Domain Controller

Your Windows Server VM will need to function as a domain controller (and DNS server) for this to work. After you’ve created the Windows Server VM, log into it as an administrator. You should be presented with the Server Manager Dialog.

  1. From the top-right, click the manage button, select Add Roles and Features. This will bring you to the Roles & Features wizard.
  2. Select Role-based or feature-based installation. Click Next
  3. Select your server. Click Next
  4. Select the following roles
    • Active Directory Domain Services
    • Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
    • Active Directory Rights Management Services -> Active Directory Rights Management Server
    • DHCP Server
    • DNS Server

Click Install–grab some coffee while Windows does its stuff. It’ll restart at least once.

Configure DNS

Almost done! We’re going to add all the entries that we had previously added in the router to the Domain Controller so that we only need to reference one DNS server: our domain controller. Finally, we’ll join a home computer to the domain.

Add the DNS records

  1. From the Server Manager window, select Tools and click DNS from the dropdown.
  2. Expand the Forward Lookup Zones node in the tree. You should see your domain under there, possibly along with other entries such as _msdcs.<your domain.
  3. Select <your domain>. Ours is
  4. Right-click <your domain>, add new host (A or AAAA)
  5. For each of your Proxmox nodes, add the name (e.g. athena)–the fully-qualified domain name should automatically populate.
    • Provide the IP address of the associated node. If you followed along closely to the previous entry, they’ll be ( up to 1 + number of nodes)
  6. Create an entry for your router such as (e.g. and point it at your gateway IP (e.g.
  7. Create an entry for your controller such as (e.g. and point it at your controller’s static IP.

Save and restart your controller.

Create a ActiveDirectory User

  1. Log back into your domain controller and, from the server manager select the Tools menu, then Active Directory Users and Computers.
  2. From the left-hand navigator tree, expand your domain node and right-click on the Users Sub-node.
  3. Select New, and then User. Fill in your information, and make a note of the username and password, we’ll use it in the next step.

Join a computer to your domain!

On your local computer, navigate to:
1. Control Panel > System and Security > System
1. Under the section Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings, select Change settings. The System Properties dialog should appear.
1. Select the Change button to the right of To rename this computer or change its domain or workgroup, click Change
1. Set your computer name (kitchen, workstation, etc.)
1. Set member of to domain with your domain value (e.g.

Click OK–this can take a bit.

Once that’s done, restart your computer. You should now be able to log in as <DOMAIN>/ (configured in the ActiveDirectory section above)!

Your profile should automatically use your domain controller as its DNS server, so you should be able to ping all of your entries.


Windows Server makes it really easy to install and manage domains, almost enough to justify its steep price-tag. A domain server allows you to control users, groups, permissions, accounts, applications, DNS, etc. in a centralized fashion. Later on, when we configure Kubernetes, we’ll take advantage of Windows Server’s powerful DNS capabilities to automatically provision DNS entries associated with IPs allocated from our cloud subnet and use them to front services deployed into our own high-availability Kubernetes cluster.

If you don’t want to/can’t use Windows Server, you can replicate this functionality using Apache Directory, and PowerDNS. I may do a post on how to setup and configure these, but my primary goal is to move on to the Kubernetes cluster configuration, and managing DNS and LDAP are two relatively complex topics that are greatly simplified by Windows Server.


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